# Science in Design Engineering

## 1 S1 - Use scientific laws – Newton’s laws of motion, Hooke’s law, Ohm’s law as appropriate to the design produce

### Use scientific laws

Use scientific laws appropriately to the design of products, such as: • Newton’s laws of motion • Hooke’s law • Ohm’s law.

• Contact and non-contact forces influencing the motion of an object.
• Newton’s and that this is the measure of force.
• Force arrows and have an understanding of balanced and unbalanced forces.
• Forces acting to deform objects and to restrict motion.
• Understanding of force and extension for a spring covering Hooke’s law.
• Measurement of conventional current and potential difference in circuits.
• Assemble series and parallel circuits and of how they differ with respect to conventional current and potential difference.
• Current and resistance and the units in which they are measured.
• Recall and apply Ohm’s law the relationship between I, R and V

### Knowledge of the function of mechanical devices

Knowledge of the function of mechanical devices to produce different sorts of movement, and the movement of objects under the influence of forces in order to solve problems around stress, strain and elasticity, including projectiles.

• Relationship between speed, distance and time.
• Represent information in a distance-time graph.
• Relative motion of objects.
• Contact and non-contact forces influencing the motion of an object.
• Newton’s and that this is the measure of force.
• Force arrows and have an understanding of balanced and unbalanced forces.
• Forces acting to deform objects and to restrict motion.
• Hooke’s law and the idea that when work is done by a force it results in an energy transfer and leads to energy being stored by an object.
• There is a force due to gravity.

### Knowledge of electronic systems

Knowledge of the electronic systems through an understanding of currents (I), resistance (R) and potential difference (V); explain the design and use of circuits – including for lamps, diodes, thermistors and LDRs.

Calculate the currents, potential differences and resistances in DC series circuits; represent them with the conventions of positive and negative terminals, and the symbols that represent common circuit elements, including diodes, LDRs and thermistors.

• Electron transfer leading to objects becoming statically charged and the forces between them.
• Existence of an electric field.
• Measurement of conventional current and potential difference in circuits.
• Assemble series and parallel circuits and of how they differ with respect to conventional current and potential difference.
• Current and resistance and the units in which they are measured.
• Recall and apply Ohm’s law the relationship between I, R and V
• Magnets and the idea of attractive and repulsive forces.
• Shape of the fields around bar magnets.
• Magnetic effect of a current and electromagnets.
• Energy transfer in process of electrical circuits.
• Conservation of energy and that it has a quantity that can be calculated.
• Transfer of energy into useful and waste energy stores.
• Power and how domestic appliances can be compared.
• Insulators and how energy transfer is influenced by temperature.

### Understanding appropriate energy sources

• Ecosystems and the various ways organisms interact.
• Gases of the atmosphere.
• Composition of the Earth, the structure of the Earth, the rock cycle, the carbon cycle, the composition of the atmosphere and the impact of human activity on the climate.
• How waves behave and how the speed of a wave may change as it passes through different media.
• How sound is heard and the hearing ranges of different species.
• Uses of some types of radiation.
• Be able to approach systems in terms of energy transfers and stores.
• That energy can be transferred in processes such as changing motion, burning fuels and in electrical circuits.
• Idea of conservation of energy and that it has a quantity that can be calculated.
• Transfer of energy into useful and waste energy stores.
• Power and how domestic appliances can be compared.
• Insulators and how energy transfer is influenced by temperature.
• Ways to reduce heat loss in the home.
• Renewable and non-renewable energy resources.
• Understanding of how power stations work and the cost of electricity in the home.
• Electrical safety features in the home.

### Application of scientific formula

Application of scientific formulae and calculation of quantities when applying science to mathematical skills.

• Scientific quantities and corresponding units.
• Apply them in qualitative work and calculations.
• Apply skills in observation, modelling and problem-solving, with opportunities for these skills to be shown through links to specification content.
• Explain the differences in density between the different states of matter in terms of the arrangements of the atoms and molecules.
• Apply the relationship between density, mass and volume to changes where mass is conserved. (covered as maths requirement)
• Density (kg/m3 ) = mass (kg)/volume (m3 ) (covered as maths requirement)
• Distance travelled (m) = speed (m/s) x time (s) (covered as maths requirement)
• Acceleration (m/s2 ) = change in velocity (m/s)/time (s) (covered as maths requirement)
• Kinetic energy (J) = 0.5 x mass (kg) x (speed (m/s))2
• Force (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration (m/s2)
• Work done/energy (J) = force (N) x distance (m) (along the line of action of the force)
• Power (W) = work done (J)/time (s)
• Momentum (kgm/s) = mass (kg) x velocity (m/s)
• Force exerted by a spring (N) = extension (m) x spring constant (N/m)
• Gravity force (N) = mass (kg) x gravitational field strength, g (N/kg)
• (In a gravity field) potential energy (J) = mass (kg) x height (m) x gravitational field strength, g (N/kg) (g = 9.81 N/kg)
• Charge flow (C) = current (A) x time (s)
• Potential difference (V) = current (A) x resistance (Ω)
• Energy transferred (J) = charge (C) x potential difference (V)
• Power (W) = potential difference (V) x current (A) = (current (A))2 x resistance (Ω)
• Energy transferred (J, kWh) = power (W, kW) x time (s, h)
• Wave speed (m/s) = frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m)
• Efficiency = useful output energy transfer (J)/input energy transfer (J)
• Change in thermal energy (J) = mass (kg) x specific heat capacity (J/kg°C) x change in temperature (°C)

## 2 S2 - Describing the conditions which cause degredation

### Understanding the properties of materials

• Understanding of physical properties of elements and compounds considering the nature of their bonding affecting their properties.
• Many useful materials that we use today are mixtures.
• Demonstrate an understanding of electrolysis, ionic solutions and solids.
• Describe a process where a material or product is recycled for a different use, and explain why this is viable.
• Evaluate factors that affect decisions on recycling.
• Describe the basic principles in carrying out a lifecycle assessment of a material or product.
• Matter and the similarities and differences between solids, liquids and gases.

## 3 S3 - Knowledge of the physical properties of materials and an explanation of how these are related to their uses

### Properties of materials when designing

Knowledge of properties of materials to be applied when designing and making.

• Explain applications of chemistry that can be used to help humans improve their own lives and strive to create a sustainable world for future generations.
• Properties of ceramics, polymers and composites.
• The method of using carbon to obtain metals from metal oxides.

### Scientific constitution of materials

Knowledge of the properties of materials based on their scientific constitution.

• Explain that many useful materials are formulations of mixtures.
• Explain the differences in density between the different states of matter in terms of the arrangements of the atoms and molecules.
• Explain how modern life is crucially dependent upon hydrocarbons and recognise that crude oil is a finite resource.
• Apply the relationship between density, mass and volume to changes where mass is conserved.

### Choosing appropriate materials including, polymers, composites, wood and metals

Understand the appropriate use of materials, including polymers, composites, woods and metals, based on their physical properties.

• explain how the bulk properties of materials (ionic compounds; simple molecules; giant covalent structures; polymers and metals) are related to the different types of bonds they contain, their bond strengths in relation to intermolecular forces and the ways in which their bonds are arranged.

### Choosing appropriate materials including, technical textiles and fibres

Understand the appropriate use of materials, including technical textiles, fibres, polymers and metals, based on their physical properties

• describe and compare the nature and arrangement of chemical bonds in:
• i. ionic compounds
• ii. simple molecules
• iii. giant covalent structures
• iv. polymers
• v. metals.